Stock Ratios: 6 Key Ratios to Analyze Before Investing

Investing in the stock market can be a rewarding way to grow your wealth, but it can also be overwhelming and confusing for new investors. And as a personal finance app, we’re always on the lookout for ways to help our users make informed investment decisions. One of the most important things to understand before investing in stocks is how to analyze a company’s financial health. One way to do this is by analyzing key ratios that provide insights into a company’s performance and potential.

In this article, we’ll discuss six key ratios that every investor should know before investing in stocks. These ratios include:

  1. Earnings per Share (EPS)
  2. Price-to-Earnings (P/E) Ratio
  3. Price-to-Book (P/B) Ratio
  4. Price/Earnings to Growth (PEG) Ratio
  5. Return on Equity (ROE)
  6. Debt-to-Equity Ratio

By understanding and analyzing these six ratios, investors can gain valuable insights into a company’s financial health and make more informed investment decisions.

EPS or Earnings per Share:

First up, let’s talk about EPS or Earnings per Share. EPS is a profitability ratio that represents the earnings of a company on a share and is calculated for equity shareholders. It’s important to note that EPS talks about a company’s earnings after deducting non-recurring gains or losses, such as the sale of a building, from net income.

Why is EPS important? A steady growth in EPS indicates a stable and growing company, which is especially important for investors looking for long-term investments. Comparing the EPS of a company with its competitors and industry averages can provide further insight into the profitability and potential of the company.

To calculate the EPS ratio, you divide the net income (obtained from the P&L A/c) by the weighted average common stock of the company (found on the balance sheet). This division shows the profit for one share out of the total earnings of the company.

P/E ratio or Price-to-Earnings Ratio:

EPS is also used to calculate the P/E ratio or Price-to-Earnings ratio. The P/E ratio informs investors whether a share is expensive or cheap. The ratio is calculated by dividing the share price by EPS. A high P/E ratio indicates an overvalued or expensive share, while a low P/E ratio indicates an undervalued or cheap share.

Investors hope that companies with a high P/E ratio will show growth and an increase in future share value. However, it’s important to note that investors should also consider other factors in addition to EPS and P/E ratios when making investment decisions. These factors include a company’s financial health, management quality, industry trends, and overall economic conditions.

P/B or Price to Book Ratio:

The P/B ratio compares a company’s stock price with its book value, which is the net value of a company’s assets. The formula to calculate the P/B ratio is the market price per share divided by the book value per share.

Investors use the P/B ratio to determine whether a company’s stock is undervalued or overvalued relative to its book value. A P/B ratio below 1 indicates that a company’s stock is undervalued, while a P/B ratio above 1 indicates that a company’s stock is overvalued.

Price/Earnings to Growth (PEG) Ratio

The PEG ratio is a valuation metric that takes into account a company’s P/E ratio and its expected earnings growth. The PEG ratio is calculated by dividing a company’s P/E ratio by its earnings growth rate.A PEG ratio of less than 1 suggests that a company may be undervalued relative to its earnings growth, while a PEG ratio of more than 1 suggests that a company may be overvalued. However, it’s important to note that the PEG ratio is just one factor to consider in the investment decision-making process and should be used in conjunction with other financial ratios and factors.

ROE or Return on Equity Ratio:

ROE is a measure of a company’s profitability that indicates how much profit a company generates with the money invested by its shareholders. The formula to calculate ROE is net income divided by the average shareholder’s equity.

Investors typically use the ROE ratio to measure a company’s efficiency in generating profits, and it’s important to compare the ROE of a company with the industry average to determine its relative performance. A higher ROE ratio indicates that a company is using its shareholders’ money more effectively, while a lower ROE ratio indicates that a company is not using its shareholders’ money effectively.

D/E or Debt to Equity Ratio:

The debt to equity ratio is a measure of a company’s financial leverage and indicates how much a company is relying on debt to finance its operations. The formula to calculate the debt to equity ratio is total liabilities divided by total equity.

Investors use this ratio to assess a company’s ability to pay off its debts and to determine its financial health. A high debt to equity ratio indicates that a company has more debt than equity and may be at risk of defaulting on its debt, while a low debt to equity ratio indicates that a company has more equity than debt and is likely to be financially stable.


In conclusion, understanding the importance of these six ratios is crucial for investors to make informed investment decisions. By using these ratios, investors can assess a company’s profitability, potential, and financial risk. In addition to these ratios, investors should also consider other factors such as the company’s financial health, management quality, industry trends, and overall economic conditions to make smarter investment choices.

>> New to investing in stocks? Learn about how to invest in stocks

>> New to investing? Here’s a beginners guide to start investing



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